Liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto Begins


Warsaw Ghetto

Warsaw Ghetto

The very first blog I ever posted to this website (here) described the difficulty of grasping the magnitude of suffering encompassed by World War II.  As historian Max Hastings, in the concluding paragraph of his vast history of the war, Inferno, observes, “Among citizens of modern democracies to whom serious hardship and collective peril are unknown, the tribulations that hundreds of millions endured between 1939 and 1945 are almost beyond comprehension.”  Even more so is the tragedy of the Holocaust, which witnessed, as Peter Fritzsche has pointed out in his new book, An Iron Wind, “the willful persecution of people based not on what they had done, but on who they were.”

The human mind is simply not equipped to fathom what 6 million Jewish dead, or 10 million+ total murdered in the camps and elsewhere, means.  So we engage in mental games to better grasp these challenges, one being quantitative comparisons.  This is bigger than that; this went on longer than that; this is farther away than that; this was deadlier than that.

July 22 marks the 74th anniversary of the start of “Gross-Aktion Warschau” or Great Action Warsaw, an eight-week campaign to liquidate part of the Warsaw Ghetto, the largest ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe.  The official word was that the Jews were being resettled “to the East.”  In fact, all the Jews were shipped directly to Treblinka, a newly constructed extermination camp, where they were gassed immediately upon arrival.

The deportations initially went according to plan—the Nazis’ murderous intentions were as yet unclear.  The Wannsee Conference, which coordinated the start of “the Final Solution,” had occurred only six months prior.  The ghetto inhabitants allowed themselves to be rounded up by the Jewish police.  (Not everyone was fooled—the head of the Jewish Council in the Ghetto, Adam Czerniakow, committed suicide upon being informed of the deportations rather than cooperate.) In another of the many bitter ironies of World War II, it was the same Jewish ghetto police and their families who were put on the final transport (September 21, 1942) which marked the end of the Gross-Aktion.

Only gradually did it finally become evident that there was no resettlement “to the East”; that deportation meant death.  By the end of September 1942, the remaining inhabitants of the Warsaw Ghetto began to take measures, however inadequate, to defend themselves. When next the Nazis entered the Ghetto to begin new deportations (January 1943), they were rebuffed by armed insurgents, ultimately culminating in the Warsaw Uprising (April 19—May 16, 1943).

While the Warsaw Uprising is well known and described in books and film, less attention has been paid to the Gross-Aktion.  Many histories of World War II don’t even mention it.

Which is surprising considering that at least 254,000, and perhaps as many as 300,000, Jews were murdered in that eight-week period.  For comparison sake, that’s more than the total killed in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined. As historian Fritzsche (who makes the foregoing comparison in An Iron Wind), further notes, the Great Action “constituted ‘the greatest slaughter perpetrated within a single city in human history.’”

Max Hastings makes another concluding observation in Inferno which has some applicability to this story: “Within the vast compass of the struggle [i.e., World War II], some individuals scaled summits of courage and nobility, while other plumbed depths of evil, in a fashion that compels the awe of posterity.”

As a side note, the newly appointed Commandant of Treblinka at the time of the Gross-Aktion, Irmfried Eberl, was a psychiatrist—in other words, a doctor by training.  He had earned a reputation running a facility in the so-called T4, or euthanasia, program in Germany (a baffling issue which I’ve discussed here).  Even so, he was dismissed on August 26, 1942 for incompetence—that is, failing to “process,” or dispose of the bodies of the gassed victims quickly and efficiently enough, leading to panic among incoming train passengers.  Captured in 1948, Eberl hanged himself prior to standing trial.

As a further side note, as a sophomore attending Georgetown University in the fall of 1973, I had a class in Comparative Government taught by a professor Jan Karski.  Tall, thin, ramrod straight, Karski was (to me) an intimidating presence, with piercing, icy blue eyes.  I enjoyed the class, as I did most others, although I sometimes had a difficult time understanding his rather thick Polish accent.  Little did I know then that Karski had been a member of the Resistance in World War II, chosen to report to the Polish government-in-exile about Nazi atrocities in occupied Poland.  As Karski writes in his memoir, Story of a Secret State, rather than rely solely on uncorroborated word-of-mouth stories, he agreed in October 1942 to be smuggled into the Warsaw Ghetto “so that I could literally see the spectacle of a people expiring, breathing its last before my eyes.”  Unfortunately, his message, personally related to Foreign Minister Sikorski of the Polish Government and later to President Franklin Roosevelt, fell on disbelieving ears. After he met with Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, Frankfurter is said to have remarked: “I did not say that he was lying, I said that I could not believe him. There is a difference.”

Karski, who never once mentioned his heroics to our unsuspecting class in 1973, died on July 13, 2000. He was recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations in 1982, and later named an honorary citizen of Israel.  He truly had “scaled the summits of courage and nobility.”

Nansen Diary Cited in German Bestseller

From Odd Nansen’s diary, November 21, 1944:

Just now a singular patrol is marching round and round the parade ground interminably.  All are fully equipped and fitted out and sing and whistle as they walk.  That’s the “pill patrol.”  They’re being used to test out a new energy pill.  How long can they keep going full steam on it?  After the first forty-eight hours it’s said that most of them had given up and collapsed, although the theory is that after taking this pill one can perform the incredible without the usual reaction afterward.  Well, no doubt the Germans could use a pill like that now.

One conundrum has always puzzled me about Odd Nansen’s diary.  I understand why From Day to Day may not have sold widely when first published in English in 1949—in my Introduction I blame war fatigue, concern over the emerging Cold War, and other factors for the lack of interest.  But what I’ve never fully understood is why historians failed during the succeeding six decades to use Nansen’s diary in their research on Nazi Germany, World War II, the Holocaust, the concentration camps, etc.  The number of history books I found during my research that even included mention of From Day to Day in their bibliography can probably be counted on one hand.  [Some attempts to correct this oversight are underway.  Nikolaus Wachsmann’s magisterial history of the camp system, KL: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps, not only relies on Nansen’s diary, he begins one of his chapters highlighting Nansen’s interactions with Tom Buergenthal.]

So imagine my surprise when I recently purchased Blitzed: Drugs in the Third Reich by Norman Ohler.


A novelist and screenwriter rather than an historian, Ohler set out to explore a hitherto untapped vein in the motherlode that is Nazi history—Germany’s and Hitler’s remarkable use (and misuse) of drugs in order to function during the war.

Ohler’s book begins with an account of the Nazis’ early attempts to stamp out widespread use of the heavy drugs which characterized life under the Weimer Republic.  This easy availability was due to, among other things, Germany’s preeminence in the pharmaceutical industry. In the 1920s German companies produced 40% of the world’s morphine and controlled 80% of the world’s cocaine traffic.  Under the Nazis stiff penalties (including death and sterilization) became the order of the day.  A favorite way to stigmatize illegal drugs was to lay their prevalence at the feet of the nefarious Jews.

But as opioid and cocaine use declined, German chemists were synthesizing new drugs—stimulants like methamphetamine—marketed under the brand name Pervitin.

At first Pervitin was available in Germany without prescription, and was touted as a cure for every ailment imaginable: aches, low energy, depression, reduced sex drive—you name it.  By 1939, fears over its widespread use—it was even being added to chocolates—and its addictive qualities, led Pervitin to be deemed a controlled substance, available only via prescription.  Even that hardly put a dent in its consumption, which continued to soar.  Moreover, the prescription requirement did not apply to the military.

And if there was one group which saw the benefits in stimulant use, it was the military.  Ohler attributes the German Army’s stunning blitzkrieg, or “lightning war,” victories in Poland and on the western front to the Wehrmacht’s use of Pervitin to keep soldiers going for days without rest.

As Germany’s fortunes faded, however, and as Hitler himself became ever more dependent on various drug cocktails administered by his personal physician, German doctors tested ever more potent combinations of Pervitin and cocaine in a vain attempt to provide a fighting advantage where no advantage could be had.  The soldiers who had marched into Poland in 1939 and France in 1940 were long gone by late 1944, and no amounts of stimulants could overcome the overwhelming advantage in men and materiel the Allies had built up.

Here’s where Nansen’s observation of November 21, 1944 (which is quoted by Ohler in Blitzed), comes in.  Ohler describes the German Navy’s development of a new wonder weapon: a mini-sub designed to wreak havoc on Allied shipping in the English Channel.  The crews, however, would need to function for four days without rest.  Could they do it?  New stimulants would need to be tested.

Elsewhere in Nansen’s diary (January 17, 1945) he describes the Schuhläufer, or “shoe-testing unit,” at Sachsenhausen.  Prisoners were made to march over a semi-circular track composed of various materials (concrete, mud, gravel, cobblestones, etc.) to test the efficiency of various synthetic shoe soles, leather and rubber being in increasingly short supply.

As Ohler (and Nansen) point out, “the shoe-walking unit was a punishment unit.”  Not only were inmates required to carry heavy backpacks (to put greater stress on the soles) and walk over 25 miles, the director, a man “known for his cruelty,” often issued shoes that were too small, or in different sizes for the left and right feet “supposedly to collect additional data.”

What Nansen was witnessing on November 21 was a special experiment by the German Navy on the shoe-testing track to see if humans could indeed function for four days without sleep.  According to Ohler, one prisoner, pumped up on cocaine and seven times the normal dose of Pervitin, covered 60 miles on the track in 16 hours “without fatigue,” and all the test subjects were able to stay awake throughout the requisite four days. [The use of the mini-subs turned out to be a complete failure.  Most never reached their target, and those sailors who returned to base complained of becoming delusional or psychotic under repeated doses of stimulants—all dispensed via chewing gum.]

An international bestseller, Blitzed has been translated into over 25 languages.  As one reviewer notes, it “places a new lens on a disturbing chapter in history.”

Despite its commercial success, Ohler’s book has received a mixed reception by the historical community.  It has been criticized as speculative, and given to overly broad generalizations, by historians Richard Evans (here), Dagmar Herzog (here), and Nik Wachsmann, while being praised by the likes of Antony Beevor (here) and Alex Kershaw, who called it “a serious piece of scholarship.”

In defending himself from his critics, Ohler penned a column for The Guardian newspaper this past May.  In it he refers to Germany’s leading historian of Nazism, Hans Mommsen, and Mommsen’s excitement over Ohler’s research findings.  He then quotes Mommsen’s reaction to reading about the “pill patrol”:

 “Mommsen was shocked; he knew so much about the Third Reich, but had never seen the navy’s files documenting these abominable tests. “I have never heard of this,” he said, baffled. “We historians have no idea about drugs. So we have never looked this way.”

If Mommsen, and the rest of the historical community, had only read From Day to Day, perhaps they wouldn’t have been quite so shocked (and uninformed) after all.

Whatever one thinks of the merits of some of Ohler’s positions, it is heartening to me to finally see From Day to Day used once again as a primary source in a history book dealing with this “disturbing chapter in history.”

Odd Nansen’s diary is too informative, too important, and too well-written, not to be. Historians, take note!

Speaking at Georgetown University

Speaking at McGhee Library, Georgetown University

Speaking at McGhee Library, Georgetown University

On June 2-4, 2017, I returned to the campus of Georgetown University (my alma mater) for reunion weekend. [This year marked an astounding 42 years since I had graduated!]  It was fun to share some of the excitement with the classes of 2012, 2007, 2002, etc., as well as some spectacularly fine weather (something of a rarity for DC in June).

At the McGhee Library, Georgetown University

At the McGhee Library, Georgetown University

More importantly, I had the opportunity to speak about Odd Nansen as a guest of the University’s Center for Jewish Civilization.  The talk was curated by Fr. Dennis McManus, a professor at the Center who teaches on Holocaust subjects, including survivors’ memoirs, autobiographies and diaries. Fr. McManus’ comments on Nansen’s diary can be found here.  It was a most enjoyable event, and afterward I was able to seat myself at the University bookstore with my books and met many wonderful alums of all ages.  Truly a memorable weekend (I was even able to visit some old campus haunts).

With Fr. Dennis McManus

With Professor Dennis McManus

Finally, I had the pleasure of being interviewed about my efforts to bring Odd Nansen back to print by Kate Colwell of the University’s development staff.  The interview can be found here.  Many thanks to Jim Warycha of the development staff for all his help in coordinating the presentation, the bookstore visit and the interview, to Kate for the interview, and to Fr. McManus for his interest in and support for Odd Nansen’s diary.

All photos courtesy of Jordan Silverman, Georgetown University. (c) Georgetown University

Odd Nansen (12/6/01–6/27/73)


Odd Nansen died 44 years ago yesterday, on June 27, 1973, age 71.

In a fascinating, insightful and highly readable new book, Why: Explaining the Holocaust, author Peter Hayes concludes his inquiry with three “broad implications for all citizens.”  Second among these is that “the Holocaust illustrates the fundamental importance and difficulty of individual courage and imagination.”  Certainly, Odd Nansen possessed the requisite courage and imagination.  But Hayes goes on to remark that bravery alone is not enough: “wit, wiliness, shrewd judgment, persistence, and creativity in challenging evil are also indispensable.”  Again, Nansen’s diary is replete with examples of these traits as well.

Hayes’ book is broken into a series of chapters, each of which addresses one question central to the Holocaust: Why the Jews?  Why the Germans? Why murder? Etc.  One question Hayes does not tackle (probably because it would require its own book) is why some people became villains, and yet others, like Nansen, became heroes.

When we pontificate today that “we must never forget the Holocaust” or “we must never let it happen again,” implicit in our statement is the firm belief that we would never participate in such evil; we would never support a program like the Nazis.  And yet millions of Germans, Austrians, and Sudeten Czechs joined the Nazi Party, and millions more collaborated with them in occupied and allied countries.

Perhaps—perhaps—one can understand the allure which the Nazi ideology (and jobs) held for the down-and-out mechanic or the failed farmer (which is what Heinrich Himmler, the greatest mass murderer of all time, was before the war).

But how could educated German doctors, subject to the Hippocratic Oath (“do no harm”), willingly engage in the so-called T4, or Euthanasia Action, killing the disabled (71,000–80,000 murdered by August 1941, and many more after that as well)?  How could “many eager lawyers,” dedicated to the rule of law, willingly act “as middleman in the sale of Jews’ assets, and the numerous willing graspers for their medical and legal practices, their artwork, their houses and apartments, their furniture and carpets”? How could German professors, leading some of the most prestigious academic institutions in the world, permit the Nazi minister of education to order them: “From now on, it is not up to you to decide whether something is true, but whether it is in the interests of the National Socialist Revolution”?

So, how could we have withstood the subtle coercion exercised by, and the enticing blandishments offered by, the Nazis had we lived in that time and place?

Hayes does provide a significant clue, when he writes, “Resistance is never easy and seldom comfortable, and compassion has to be practiced in order to hold up when challenged.” (emphasis mine).  The Odd Nansen depicted in his diary (1942–1945) is the same Odd Nansen who voluntarily put his career on hold in 1936 to form a relief organization for stateless Jewish refugees.  He undertook the task knowing it would be difficult, frustrating and often daunting, especially in the face of indifference and official governmental anti-Semitism.  Is it surprising, then, that Nansen managed to survive the crucible of World War II with his humanity intact?

If today we flatter ourselves that we can be indifferent to suffering in our midst, if we can ignore the plight of those less fortunate, or of powerless minorities (like the Jews of the 1930s), if we can turn our backs on the lessons of the beatitudes, will we really be ready, if and when we are ever tested in a conflict as horrible as the Holocaust? The lessons of history say otherwise.


Robert Losey—America’s First WWII Casualty

Capt. Robert M. Losey

Capt. Robert M. Losey


On Memorial Day, we remember those who died while serving in our armed forces.

Few people today can recall that the first U.S. serviceman to die in World War II was killed—in Norway.

Robert M. Losey was born in Andrew, Iowa in 1908, graduated from West Point in 1929 and received his wings in the Army Air Corps in 1930.  Married in 1933, Losey earned a masters degree from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and was considered an expert in the newly emerging field of aeronautical meteorology.

With the start of the so-called Winter War between Finland and Russia in November 1939, Losey was assigned as an assistant military attaché to the U.S. Embassy in Finland to observe airplane related developments.  When the war ended in March 1940, Losey was ordered to Stockholm as assistant military attaché to Sweden and Norway.  Twelve days later (April 9, 1940), Germany invaded Norway, and Losey proceeded to assist the U.S. Legation, headed by Ambassador Florence Harriman, which had fled Oslo along with the Norwegian Government. Losey was able to help Harriman in her escape into neutral Sweden, and agreed to return to Norway in search of other Legation members who had not yet been safely evacuated.

Capt. Losey and Ambassador Florence Harriman

Capt. Losey and Ambassador Florence Harriman

As the German invasion was still underway, with heavy fighting throughout the country, everyone was fully aware of the risks involved.  Under no circumstances would Losey permit the Ambassador to return.  “You might be bombed,” he argued; “the Germans are strafing the roads.”

“But so might you,” Harriman replied, “and that would be worse for you are young and have your life before you, while I have had a wonderful life and nearly all of it behind me.”

“I certainly don’t want to be killed, but your death would be the more serious as it might involve our country in all kinds of trouble, whereas with a military attaché. . . .”

Accordingly, Losey set off with only Ambassador Harriman’s chauffeur, and arrived at the town of Dombås, a strategically important railroad junction on April 21.  [Watching the rail line through Dombås was part of the mission undertaken by Jens Beck, whose tragic death I have previously recounted here.]  Shortly after arriving, the town and its railroad station came under attack by German bombers.  Losey, along with many others, took refuge in the nearby railroad tunnel.  While everyone else retreated far into the safety of the tunnel, Losey remained near the entrance so he could observe German bombing tactics and techniques.  Shrapnel from a nearby bomb blast pierced him, thus exposed, and Losey was killed instantly.  He was 31.

A funeral service was held in Stockholm, attended by many of the journalists and attachés who had known Losey, as well as Count Folke Bernadotte, nephew of the King of Sweden. (Bernadotte was a good friend of Odd Nansen, and played a crucial role in his deliverance at the end of the war.)  Ambassador Harriman wrote in her memoir, Mission to the North: “I had known the young Captain only a few weeks, but the circumstances had been so full of danger and problems, that I felt I had known him a long time, for I saw what his character was, and as taps were sounded, it seemed as if I had lost a son.”

In 1987, the citizens of Dombås erected a monument in Robert Losey’s honor.  It reads:

memory of
Captain Robert Losey, USAAC
killed in action at Dombås 21st April
The first American serviceman
to give his life for his
country in World War II.
In memory of the many
American servicemen who later
in the war lost their lives
in Norway while fighting
for the liberation of
this country

In 2015, I took the four-hour train ride from Oslo to Dombås, to view the memorial, as well as the tunnel.  I also stumbled upon a small museum nearby (the site of a former POW camp set up by the Germans).  It was closed for the day, but a local resident who volunteered at the museum offered to open it just for me.  Among the treasures hidden inside was Losey’s ceremonial sword. The tunnel, monument and sword are all pictured below.

Railway tunnel, Dombås, Norway

Railway tunnel, Dombås, Norway

I will never forget that day, and on every Memorial Day my thoughts turn to Capt. Robert Moffat Losey, to the 400,000+ fellow Americans who died during World War II while in service, and to their compatriots who have fallen in battle in all of America’s conflicts.

“At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.”

Losey Memorial, Dombås, Norway

Losey Memorial, Dombås, Norway

Robert Losey's ceremonial sword

Robert Losey’s ceremonial sword


Nansen Address at Guilford College

With Wess Daniels of the Friends Center and President Jane Fernandes

With Wess Daniels of the Friends Center and President Jane Fernandes

On April 25 I had the honor of addressing students, faculty and other interested parties at Hege Library, Guilford College, Greensboro, NC.  Founded in 1837 by the Society of Friends, Guilford College strives to “integrate personal, intellectual, physical and spiritual growth through participation in several rich traditions,” including Quakerism.  According to the school’s Statement of Purpose, the Quaker heritage “stresses spiritual receptivity, candor, integrity, compassion, tolerance, simplicity, equality, and strong concern for social justice and world peace.” Once I had read that, I knew that Odd Nansen’s diary and example would resonate with the audience—he was the living embodiment of all of those attributes.

In my talk I made a point of mentioning two people, Sigrid Helliesen Lund and Myrtle Wright, whose autobiography (Lund) and diary (Wright) I relied on extensively in my research on Odd Nansen and From Day to Day.  Lund, a Norwegian, worked closely with Nansen, beginning in 1936, when she joined the Board of Nansenhjelpen (Nansen Relief), an agency founded by Nansen to alleviate the plight of stateless Jews who were stranded in central Europe.  In late 1942 she was instrumental in smuggling into neutral Sweden many of the same Jews she had helped bring to Norway only a few years earlier.  For this courageous action she was recognized as Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem in 2006, one of only 62 Norwegians so honored.  Although born into a Lutheran family, Lund was an independent spirit; she worked with Quakers during the war and formally joined the Society of Friends in 1947, thereafter becoming active in the Quaker community.  Lund’s autobiography, Always on the Way, was first published in 1982, and translated into English in 2000.

Myrtle Wright was an Englishwoman, and a Quaker, who had the misfortune of arriving in Norway only three days prior to Germany’s invasion on April 9, 1940, and was not allowed to leave Norway for the duration of the war.  Wright spent almost the entire war as Lund’s houseguest (until both were forced to flee for their lives to Sweden in February 1944).  Wright’s diary is an immensely valuable contemporary record of events in Norway during the war (I cite her diary ten times in my Introduction and twenty-nine times in my sources for footnotes).  Wright’s diary, Norwegian Diary: 1940-1945 was published by the Friends Peace and International Relations Committee in 1974.

No story involving Odd Nansen and his diary would be complete without some serendipity and coincidence.  Only after my talk did I learn that Sigrid Lund attended the 1967 World Gathering of Friends held at Guilford College, and that her translator, Kathryn Parke, was a member of the Swannanoa Friends (not far from Asheville, NC).

Thanks to Kate Hood, Outreach Coordinator for the Friends Center, for sharing the news about Lund’s visit, and for showing me the campus (including the ancient poplar tree which silently witnessed the workings of the Underground Railroad, in which the some anti-slavery activists serving on the initial staff of Guilford College’s predecessor, New Garden Boarding School, were heavily involved), C. Wess Daniels, Director of the Friends Center, my host, and President Jane Kelleher Fernandes.  After my talk, President Fernandes wrote:

 “Thank you so much for making the visit to Guilford and presenting the honorable life of Odd Nansen.  Your talk struck a chord because of the way it lifted up our College Core Values and its direct relevance to issues of our time.  May we behave in ways that honor the work done before us by individuals like Odd Nansen.  Without your effort, we would never have been able to know Odd Nansen.  With it, we have a history to rely upon as a moral compass for acting with integrity in the face of human rights violations.  May we live up to it!”

May we indeed live up to it.

Finally, special thanks to my friend Dan Mask.  Dan, whose son Dylan attends Guilford, walked up to my author table at a Barnes & Noble in Charlotte, NC in late December, and started asking lots of questions about Nansen, his book, and my motivation in bringing it to print again.  He must have been satisfied with my answers, because he took it upon himself to introduce me to President Fernandes and lobby for an invitation.  Another instance of serendipity!

Sigrid Lund's autobiography and Myrtle Wright's diary

Copies of Sigrid Lund’s autobiography and Myrtle Wright’s diary

The Year in Review

This past week marks the first anniversary of the re-publication of From Day to Day: One Man’s Diary of Survival in Nazi Concentration Camps (as well as the 72nd anniversary of the end of Odd Nansen’s captivity).  So, here’s a quick summary of the year in numbers (I have to put my MBA to some use after all):

13,574             Miles traveled
3,186               Website visitors
1,800+           Books sold
1,575               Dollars donated to charity
39                    Book presentations
29                    Blog posts
23                    Cities visited
9                       Bookstores visited
7                       Reviews of book
4                       Museums visited
1                       Incredible experience


For Holocaust Remembrance Day

Refugee Blues

By W.H. Auden


Say this city has ten million souls,

Some are living in mansions, some are living in holes:

Yet there’s no place for us, my dear, yet there’s no place for us.


Once we had a country and we thought it fair,

Look in the atlas and you’ll find it there:

We cannot go there now, my dear, we cannot go there now.


In the village churchyard there grows an old yew,

Every spring it blossoms anew:

Old passports can’t do that, my dear, old passports can’t do that.


The consul banged the table and said,

“If you’ve got no passport you’re officially dead”:

But we’re still alive, my dear, we’re still alive.


Went to a committee; they offered me a chair;

Asked me politely to return next year:

But where shall we go today, my dear, but where shall we go today?


Came to a public meeting; the speaker got up and said;

“If we let them in, they will steal our daily bread”:

He was talking of you and me, my dear, he was talking of you and me.


Thought I heard the thunder rumbling in the sky;

It was Hitler over Europe, saying: “They must die”:

We were in his mind, my dear, we were in his mind.


Saw a poodle in a jacket fastened with a pin,

Saw a door opened and a cat let in:

But they weren’t German Jews, my dear, but they weren’t German Jews.


Went down to the harbour and stood on the quay,

Saw the fish swimming as if they were free:

Only ten feet away, my dear, only ten feet away.


Walked through a wood, saw the birds in the trees;

They had no politicians and sang at their ease:

They weren’t the human race, my dear, they weren’t the human race.


Dreamed I saw a building with a thousand floors,

A thousand windows and a thousand doors:

Not one of them was ours, my dear, not one of them was ours.


Stood on a great plain in the falling snow;

Ten thousand soldiers marched to and fro:

Looking for you and me, my dear, looking for you and me.


From Collected Shorter Poems 1927-1957, by W.H. Auden

Special thanks to my good friend Kathy Aleš for sharing this poem with me

The Children of Bullenhuser Damm, Pt. III

The school at Bullenhuser Damm where the murders occurred.

The school at Bullenhuser Damm where the murders occurred.

As noted in my first blog concerning Bullenhuser Damm, some, but not all the murderers were brought to justice soon after the war.  The evil genius behind the medical experiments on the twenty young Jewish children at Neuengamme concentration camp, Kurt Heissmeyer, somehow managed to escape notice in postwar Germany, and ended up opening and operating a medical clinic in East Germany, unrecognized for almost twenty years, until 1963.

Finally convicted in 1966 and sentenced to life imprisonment, Heissmeyer died the following year in jail of a heart attack.  During his trial he was asked why he did not confine his experiments to guinea pigs (which he also tested simultaneously with his tests on the children). His response: “For me there was no basic difference between human beings and guinea pigs.”  Then he corrected himself: “Between Jews and guinea pigs.”

As disturbing as this answer is, it perhaps can be chalked up as the ranting of an unreconstructed Nazi. What is harder to explain is the prosecutor’s mindset in the case of Arnold Strippel, the senior officer in charge of the executions at Bullenhuser Damm.  After the war Strippel was initially charged and convicted of different murders—which he committed at Buchenwald—for which he received twenty-one life sentences.  Strippel served in prison from 1949 to 1969 when his sentence was vacated and he was freed (on retrial Strippel was again convicted, but only as an accomplice, and his new sentence equaled time already served).

In the mid-1960s (while Strippel was still in prison for the Buchenwald murders) an investigation into his alleged role in the Bullenhuser Damm murders was initiated by the Chief Prosecutor of Hamburg, Helmut Münzberg.  After a lengthy investigation Münzberg ultimately elected not to proceed with a prosecution.  Under German law, a murder conviction required proof that a person acted with a “base motive,” such as greed or hatred, or exhibited sadistic zeal.  Author Günther Schwarberg quotes from Münzberg’s official prosecutorial memorandum:

The investigations did not prove with the certainty that is demanded of them that the children suffered unduly before they died.  On the contrary, much can be said for the fact that all the children became unconscious as soon as they received the first injection [of morphine] and were therefore not aware of all that happened to them thereafter.  And so, beyond the destruction of their lives no further harm was done to them; and in particular they did not have to suffer especially long, either in body or soul.  (emphasis Schwarberg’s).

In an endnote to his book, The Murders at Bullenhuser Damm, Schwarberg reports a conversation he had with prosecutor Münzberg in 1979, twelve years after Münzberg wrote the above memorandum. “Chief Prosecutor Dr. Helmut Münzberg regretted having formulated this sentence.  He was sure he would never write another sentence like this one.”

The end of a series.

Photo source: By flamenc (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

The Children of Bullenhuser Damm, Pt. II

Georges-André Kohn, age 10.

Georges-André Kohn, age 10.

Odd Nansen’s diary entry of April 10, 1945, concerning the children of Bullenhuser Damm contained only one clue as to their identity—the reference to a young boy with pneumonia whose father was the head of the Rothschild Institute in Paris.  This was Georges-André Kohn, and his father’s name was Armand Kohn.  The elder Kohn cooperated with the German occupation authorities in Paris in his position as director of the largest Jewish hospital in France, in the hopes that his behavior might protect him and his family.  And it did for a while, although such cooperation meant walking a fine line between fulfilling his job healing the hospital’s Jewish patients and strictly enforcing the ever more drastic edicts against the Jews promulgated by Adolf Eichmann’s representative in Paris, SS Hauptsturmführer Alois Brünner.

But Kohn’s trust was ultimately misplaced, and his protection ended as the Allies approached Paris in the summer of 1944.  Armand and his entire family (mother, wife and their four children) were personally arrested by Brünner in late July, and on August 17, 1944, one week before Paris was liberated, they were placed on the last deportation train to leave Paris.

The fate of Georges-André, who was murdered three days shy of his thirteenth birthday, is doubly tragic.  As the deportation train headed east to Germany, Georges-André’s twenty-one year-old brother Philippe and eighteen year-old sister Rose-Marie decided to escape the slow-moving train along with several other occupants, through an opening they had made in the cattle-car.  Georges wanted to escape as well, but was prevented by his father, who feared reprisals against those who remained behind.  Like a dutiful twelve year-old, Georges elected to remain on the train.  Both Philippe and Rose-Marie made good their escape, and survived the war.

Of the Kohn family members who stayed behind on the train, only the father Armand lived.  His wife Suzanne and twenty-two year-old daughter Antoinette died in Bergen-Belsen, his mother Marie-Jeanne died in Auschwitz and Georges-André in Neuengamme.  Armand died in 1962 without ever learning of Georges’ whereabouts or fate (Günther Schwarberg’s book was not published until 1980).   Philippe Kohn later became the honorary president of the Children of Bullenhuser Damm Association.

More about the Kohn family’s story can be found in Swastika Over Paris by Jeremy Josephs (Arcade Publishing, 1989), which the author dedicated to Georges-André Kohn.


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